Journal Referencing Harvard Method Bibliography

When referencing a journal article in the Harvard UTS Style, you will need the following information about the journal article:

In most cases this information can be found at the top of the article itself. Once you have collected this information you will need to arrange it as shown below. Roll the mouse over each section for a description of the information.

Islamoglu, H. & Keyder, C.1977, 'Agenda for Ottoman history', Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31-55.

Only the first word and any proper nouns within the article should be capitalised. Leave other words (eg: for, history) in lower case. All words in the journal title should be capitalised.

For more information about referencing a journal article please expand any of the options below. You can also get help with referencing at any time via the Ask a Librarian page.

Authors

In text

One Author

(Raza 2010)

If there are two or three authors, list their surnames with an & before the last one.

Two Authors

(Islamoglu & Keyder 1977)

Three Authors

(Barnoud, Rossi & Monticelli 2014)

Four or more authors

If there are four or more authors, list the first author only, followed by et al. 

Reference list using these four examples

The first example is from a journal that has article numbers instead of page numbers.

The fourth example is from a journal that has seasonal issues.

Note that in the reference list all authors must be listed even if there are four or more

Barnoud, J., Rossi, G. & Monticelli, L. 2014, 'Lipid membranes as solvents for carbon nanoparticles', Physical Review Letters, vol. 112, no. 6, 068102.

Gillespie, N.C., Lewis, R.J., Pearn, J.H., Bourke, A.T.C., Holmes, M.J., Bourke, J.B. & Shields, W.J. 1986, 'Ciguatera in Australia: occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 145, no. 11-12, pp. 584-90.

Islamoglu, H. & Keyder, C. 1977, 'Agenda for Ottoman history', Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31-55.

Raza, S. 2010, 'A conflict analysis methodology for formulating security policy and strategy', Security and Defense Studies Review, vol. 10, no. Spring-Summer, pp. 23-47.

No Author

In text

(‘Schuth wins Leibniz prize’ 2003)

Reference list

‘Schuth wins Leibniz prize’ 2003, Materials Today,vol. 6, no. 6, p. 61.

Quote from a work citing another author

Sometimes when you read a document it will quote from another author, and you find that you want to use that quote.

For example, on page 78 of a book by Kip Thorne, written in 1994, you find a quote from a 1906 paper by Albert Einstein. To cite the work by Einstein you should mention Einstein's paper in the text and use Thorne as your in-text reference, with page number. There are many ways you could do this. Here are three examples:

Einstein stated in 1906 that 'time is relative' (Thorne 1994, p. 78).

Thorne (1994, p. 78) quotes Einstein as saying in 1906 that 'time is relative'.

The theory that 'time is relative' was first stated by Einstein in 1906 (Thorne 1994, p. 78).

In your reference list you must have the full reference for Thorne. If you wish, you may also include the reference for Einstein (you can get this from Thorne's bibliography). This isn't usually recommended however, because you haven't actually consulted the Einstein paper directly.

Online journal article

If the article does come in PDF form use the print article convention seen above.

If your article does not come in PDF form, or does not contain page numbers, and can be found free on the web, use the electronic article template below. You must include the date you viewed the article, followed by the full URL within angle brackets.

In text

(Clark et al. 2003)

Reference list

Clark, J., Diefenderfer, C., Hammer, S. & Hammer, T. 2003, 'Estimating the area of Virginia', Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications,vol. 3, viewed 6 October 2009,< http://mathdl.maa.org/mathDL/4/?pa=content&sa=viewDocument&nodeId=507 >.

If the article does not come in PDF form, or does not contain page numbers, and is found on a library database, indicate the database in angle brackets.

BMJ and other journals that have article numbers

Some journals such as Britsh Medical Journal (BMJ) and Physical Review Letters use an unusual numbering system where with all articles are marked with an article number and all articles begin on page 1. To reference these articles we the journal article template, but replace the issue number with the article number.

In text

(Grabowska & Kaplan 2016), (Semsarian & Ingles 2016)

Reference list

Grabowska, D.M. & Kaplan, D.B. 2016, ‘Nonperturbative regulator for chiral gauge theories?’, Physical Review Letters, vol. 116, no. 211602, pp. 1-5.

Semsarian, C. & Ingles, J. 2016, ‘Preventing sudden cardiac death in athletes’, BMJ, vol. 353, no. i1270, pp. 1-2.

In press

If the article has been accepted for publication (so you know the journal name) but you don't know when it will be published, use 'in press' instead of the year and leave out all details following the journal title. If you know the year of publication (this must be the year of print publication even if it is published first electronically), you can use that and then use 'in press' following the journal title. If the article has been submitted but not yet accepted, use 'submitted' in place of the year and leave out the journal name as well.

In text

(Johnston in press), (Jilette & Teller 2012), (Whitbury submitted)

Reference list

Johnston, A.H. in press, 'Images of jellyfish in human history',Annals of Oceanic Art.

Jilette, P. & Teller, R.J. 2012, 'How to make fish disappear',Canadian Journal of Magic, in press.

Whitbury, M.J. submitted, 'New evidence on fake moon landings'.

Tips and Tricks

Almost all online journals have a printed equivalent. When this is the case reference it as the print version. This is partly because URLs for online articles are usually very long, and change with time; and partly because not everyone will be able to access the online journal in the same way that you did.

When referencing a journal article retrieved from an online database do not include the database name. The reason is the confusion that often arises when journals are duplicated across different databases, publishing companies merge, or online access to a provider stops.

Some journals don't use page numbers, but instead each article has its own number. An example is Physical Review Letters. In this case use the article number in place of the page numbers (there is an example above in the authors section).

If your journal article does not have a printed equivalent, or if the online version is significantly different from the print version, use the Online journal article format.

If your journal article is not yet published use the In press format.

Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

  1. In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

    Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

    "After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).

  2. Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

    Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

    Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.


Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

  1. Name of the author(s)
  2. Year published
  3. Title
  4. City published
  5. Publisher
  6. Pages used

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

  • Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

  • Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

  • Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Example:

  • Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
  • Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
  • Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

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If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

  • Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
  • Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).

Examples:

  • Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
  • Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

Example:

  • Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).

Example:

  • Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for magazines quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

  • Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
  • Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
  • Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for ebooks and pdfs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.

Examples:

  • Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin. [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson.
  • Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Yardley.

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If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.

Example:

  • Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
  • Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. (1994). Faces in the Night. [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library.

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If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].

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If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

  • Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Examples:

  • Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
  • The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.

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If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

If not published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Examples:

  • Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014].
  • Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.

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If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases

To cite a court case, use the following format:

  • Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case.

Example:

  • Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1.

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation.
**If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

Examples:

  • Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
  • Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

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If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.

Example:

  • Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

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If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

  • Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood
**The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

Example:

  • Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.

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If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

  • Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Example:

  • Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].

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If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order.

Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).

Example:

  • Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39.

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If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions.

Use the following format to cite the government publications:

  • Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Examples:

  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.

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If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

  • Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of Interview.

Example

  • Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo.

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If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
  • Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
  • 7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. [video]. Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

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If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title or Description of Patent. Patent number.

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

Example:

  • Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in an electric vehicle. 5,392,873.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for patents quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].

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If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.

Example:

  • Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital.

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If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title.

If found online, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students.
  • EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration. [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

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If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:

  • Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.

Example:

  • New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340.

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If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

  • Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for reports quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

  • Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher.

Example:

  • Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for software quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.


Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.

Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:

  • Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “... he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:

  • “A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
  • “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:

  • It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).

Example:

  • Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:

  • “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:

  • The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:

  • Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).

In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.


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